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Girne Antık Ticaret Gemisi (M.Ö.388-289)

 Bugün Girne kalesinde teşhir edilen Batığıö bilinen en önemli batıklardan birisidir. 1965 ylında denizden sünger çıkarmak için dalan Girneli Andreas Cariolou (“Arris”), tarafından bulundu.  ABD’li Michael ve Susan Katzev tarafından kazısı yapıldı. Su  altında  bakterilerin yaşayamamasından dolayı, ahşap türü  organik   malzemeler korunabıldı.   Gemi M.ö. 388  yılında inşa edildi. M.ö, 289 yılında  ise battığı  tahmin  edilen geminin batış nedeni, tahta kurtlarının  yıllar içinde  gemiyi  aşındırması     korsanlar  tarafından   saldırıya  uğramış  olabileceği ve aşın yük almış yaşlı geminin fırtınaya yenik düşmesidir. Her biri 41 kilo olan 380 adet anfora (Rhodos), 29 (Nisyros) adet değirmen taşı geminin ana kargosudur.

Anforaların içinde 10.000 adet badem bulunmuştur. Kaptanın günlük tutmak için kullandığı mürekkep kutusu, bulunan değerli eşyalardan biridir, Geminin en altında çinko üzerine yazılıp bağlanan bir de büyü bulunmuştur. Zamanın inancına göre büyünün konulduğu mekanlar lanetlenir. Gemide bulunan 4' er adet tabak, bardak, kase, kaşık ve tuzluktan toplam gemici sayısının 4 olduğunu anlıyoruz.” 



Andreas Cariolou (Arrris)

Girne Antık Ticaret Gemisi

  The Kyrenian,  Andreas Cariolou  discovering the kyrenia shipwreck in November 1965

    The solid mad and seaweed seabed floor covered safely the underwater wooden hull for two and a half thousand years and only a few Rhodian amphorae guided Andreas to this unique wreck which became a landmark in Nautical Archaeology



Draft sketches of ancient square sail and brails

Draft sketches of The Square sail of the ancient commercial ship

Draft sketches of the shell-first construction and ancient "rivets".

Abstract by G.Cariolou
The return trip- Paphos to Piraeus 1987




 "KYRENIA - 2"   Girne Antik  Gemi batığı özgün kopyası.


(Mr Harris Tzalas and the Hellenic Institute for the Preservation of Nautical Tradition 

may be contacted at E-mail : c/o  Joanna Tzalas :  )



The KYRENIA-2 Sailing in front of spectators in the port of Yokohama Japan (1989) with Glafkos Cariolou, Kostas Agathagelou, George Paphitis and Japanese sailor.


NOTE:  Mr Antonis Vasiliades  (Single Handed transatlantic Racer) was the First captain of KYRENIA 2 on the initial  journey from Greece to Cyprus. (Summer 1986)

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Pencil rough -sketches  from the KYRENIA 2 Log Book Kept by Captain G.Cariolou (during the trip from Cyprus to Greece ). Shell first construction

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Pencil rough  drawings from the KYRENIA 2 Log Book Kept by Captain G.Cariolou (during the trip from Cyprus to Greece ).   Square sail and Yard.

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Pencil rough  drawings from the KYRENIA 2 Log Book Kept by Captain G.Cariolou (during the trip from Cyprus to Greece ).

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The Return Trip  of  "KYRENIA 2"  Paphos to Sounion and Piraeus

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By:       Glafkos Cariolou

            Captain of KYRENIA II

            Dipl.Yacht & B/yard Mgt. So'ton U.K. Dipl.M.I.M.

  "According to information passed by HESIOD  in his "WORKS AND DAYS"  "there is nothing pleasant sailing in April in the so called, Spring sailing season  and it is hard to escape coming to grief, yet still and even so, men in their short-sightedness do undertake it".

The Hellenic Institute of Nautical Archaeology with a carefully prepared experiment investigates in to the ancient sailing routes and the probable sailing performance of commercial sailing vessels of 400 BC.

An almost 80% authentic ancient ship replica is sailed over 520 nautical miles through the ancient port of Paphos in Cyprus, to Rhodos, Astypalaia, Syros, and Piraeus. The findings are useful for Nautical Archaeology and these cover the planning of the voyage, the preparation of the ship and crew, the sailing performance of the vessel and other aspects of navigation and seamanship forming an introduction into the vast amount of knowledge possessed by the ancient Hellene Mariners and Shipbuilders as seen and experienced by a modern sailor and a non-Archaeologist.....



"Cyprus and the Eastern mediterranean from prehistory to late antiquity"

  Edited by     Stuart Swiny , Robert L.Hohlfelder , Helena Wylde Swiny


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Author: Glafkos Cariolou of Kyrenia Nautical  Club (dept.Offshore Navigation) (captain of KYRENIA 2 on the journey from Cyprus (Limassol) to Greece (Zea) . (Winter 1987)

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(Based on the voyage of "KYRENIA-2 "  from  7th April to 26th April 1987.  from Limassol Cyprus to Zea Greece. )


"On Saturday the 20th of November 1965 Andreas Cariolou, my late father on a sponge cultivation dive at a depth of 100 feet discovered the wreck of an ancient Merchantman. With him I took the first black/white photographs. A few years later, a team of experts and divers under the leadership of Michael Katzev, achieved to bring the finds to the surface and with the assistance of  Richard Steffy the ships parts were assembled in the castle of my home town Kyrenia Cyprus. I personally worked as a diver in the underwater excavation in 1967, 1968, and 1969. In July 1974 Kyrenia Castle, the town of Kyrenia and the entire Republic of Cyprus, a country of half a million people were attacked by the Turkish army following a military coup organized by the Greek Junda . Many  Cypriot civilians lost their lives and almost 200,000 Cypriots of Greek, Turkish, Armenian, Maronite and Latin origins, were up-rooted. I am one of these refugees. Forcefully divorced from the world of my childhood dreams, the Kyrenia ship, I can no longer see or visit it freely. The Turkish military rulers removed the history of the discovery of the ship and the picture of my late father, from the exhibition room, so it remains obscured to the ignorant by passer.

The ship since 1974, is imprisoned with a doubtful future, in the hands of the Turkish military. The only reason that the ship still survives is the fact that a few sensitive Cyprioturkish Kyrenians as well as foreign scientists kept the Turkish army away.

As you probably assume my deep sentimental connection drove me in to the KYRENIA-2 project and thanks to the Hellenic Institute for the Preservation of Nautical tradition, Mr. Hary Tzalas and the Greek Ministry of Culture, I have the honor to present my findings to you today.

I often during the Symposium felt heavily handicapped as I am neither an archaeologist nor a Naval architect, but I do hope you will forgive the mistakes and sentiment of an amateur.


The objectives of the return trip of K2 in 1987 were:

  1.         To Investigate and test the possibility of sailing West , back to Greece in Winter time and determine the possible duration of the trip.

  2.            Confirm the feasibility of sailing the vessel with only four men as crew members and handling the vessel at night time.

  3.         Test and investigate the performance and capabilities of the vessel in general under adverse conditions,

  4.         Try to obtain as much information as possible in order to assist the Archaeologist and  general research on the subject.


  Using statistical analysis of meteorological data provided by the Cyprus Meteorological dept., it was decided that the trip should commence on the 1st of April 1987. This meant that we should be using the strong Easterly winds, resulting from the so called ATLAS or DESSERT DEPRESSIONS, usually forming in the Atlantic ocean over the ATLAS mountain region and the coast of East Africa.

  These depressions pass over the dessert picking up hot dry air, ending with the center of a cyclonic system over Egypt, causing in the area between Paphos (Cyprus) and Mandraki Rhodos a strong Easterly gradient. In view of the Turkish invasion in Cyprus and continuing occupation and aggression on the Island, coastal navigation in Minor Asia had to be excluded, thus partially affecting the authenticity of the trip.

Sailing 230 Nautical miles from Paphos to Rhodos became a navigational exercise, probably not encountered by sailors of our ancient ship. Using a (polar diagram) and other records resulting from the 1986 trip from Greece to Cyprus, a probabilistic route was formed with 34 alternative routes. The choice of each route totally depended on the wind direction. The optimum route was :


  This route gave a straight line distance of 520 Nautical Miles,

  The Plan of the voyage contained the port of departure, the port of arrival, the compass course, the distance, the favorable wind direction limits and finally the totally unfavorable wind direction or "NO SAIL" limits. It was calculated that wind with a direction of 67 to 140 degrees was unfavorable and 240 to 330 degrees  was a "NO SAIL" situation.

The plan of the voyage was submitted to the HIPNT and it was approved. By courtesy of Mr. Latsis ship-owner, the offshore tug boat "HELLAS" . (45m LOA, 5m Draught, 13 Knots Max Speed) was to be our escort safety vessel. The Tug boat was to provide towage in and out of the port and to serve as a base station for researchers, scientists and archaeologists. The duration of the trip of 520 N.M was estimated to be between 12 and 15 days.

  Finally the trip wads delayed after Turkey threatened to commence oil drilling in Greek territorial waters. The resulting crisis affected the programme by apprx. a delay of 7 days.


  On the 8th of February we commenced at the Kyrenia Nautical club the maintenance of K2 inside a  specially made building, housing the entire ship (with-out the mast).

From the previous trip the K2 remained in the moderately polluted (much less than ZEA , port of Limassol 43v days. As a result (1) out f the total keel surface, submerged (7.28 M.sq.), 11.5% (0.84 M.sq) was superficially affected by woodworm which penetrated the pitch. In a similar way 7.9% (0.42 sq.M) of the first planks on both sides on the rabbet  line were also attacked by woodworm. In addition most of the submerged hull had a 2-4 cm of Marine Algae or marine-growth. In view of inadequate protection offered by pitch (the ancient ship had a 2 mm lead sheething on top of the pitch) it was decided to protect the hull with contemporary materials.

(2)        The under hull was treated - painted with modern "INTERNATIONAL" black antifouling paint. (3) 4 areas were purposefully left with ancient-method protective coating (pine-pitch + linseed oil) in order to measure the degree of fouling.

(4)        3 coats of "rentokill" were applied outside and inside of the area below the waterline prior to applying the antifouling in order  to protect the wooden hull from worm action. (5) The main halyard and 7 of the sail brails (Μαντάρι Κεραίας, Συστολείς‘)  were changed including the two major brails (Θριοί).

(6)        The sail tabling was checked and re-sawn were necessary on the boltrope .In the same way all lead brail rings  on the sail were reinforced in their sawn stitches.

(7) The steering arm, hallyard block system was changed from 1/2 purchase to 1/3 and was tested..

(9)        The broken stanchions were replaced by two new stanchions.

(10) The wooden rings of the major brail were re-spliced..

(11)      Finally the entire vessel as weel as all the ropes and blocks were thickly coated with linseed oil.

The total area treated, below the first whale, was 64.8 Sq.M. We used 185.9 person hrs or 2.9 person hours per Sq.M. Plus 96 person hrs for ancillary works.

the total ship pr3eparation time was 281.9 person hrs.

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  A crew of five (5) was selected. Four to be the working crew and one as a replacement in case of an emergency.

Those were:

NIKOS MERTIRIS: Age 40. A professional seaman with trawler fishing experience both in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean.

  KOSTAS  AGATHANGELOU (TATIS) :   Age 39, a proficient seaman from the town of Kyrenia, a quay master in Limassol port distinguished for his excellent humor and cordial character.

  STAMATIS CHRYSAFITIS: Age 27. A good sailor, student of naval architecture of Metsovion Polytechnion with experience of rowing of Tim Severins "ARGO" and a crew member of the KYRENIA 2 1986 trip to Cyprus.

  GEORGE PAPHITIS: Age 28. A good sailor and a coastal navigator with a degree in Hotel Administration and proven cooking abilities under rough sea conditions.

  Finally myself as the Captain of the ship,  completed the team of five. All of us except Nikos have had a minimum of 50 hrs of experience and training on board KYRENIA 2.


  KYRENIA 2 was launched on the 1st of April 1987 and with a crew of four we departed from Limassol on the 7th of April 1987 with calm weather and completely flat seas, so we had to be towed from Limassol to Paphos.

With a possibility of an Atlas depression approaching and the time constraints we departed Paphos with all crew on board having light westerly unfavorable winds. We had to sail on a starboard tack on a course heading to Alexandria Egypt for apprx 50 N.M from Paphos. Changing to a port tack towards the coast of Minor Asia heading for ancient tristomon and cape chelidonia. The expected Atlas depression arrived causing a storm of gusting Easterly  winds of 53 Knots and waves up to 3.5 to 4 metres. In spite of the fearsome roar of the Easter Mediterranean Kyrenia 2 with no significant problems, successfully arrived after four days, on the 12th of April 1987, in MANDRAKI RHODES. From Rhodes we departed on the 14th after waiting for favorable weather and reinforcing KYRENIA2 rigging as well as preparing for colder temperatures. After sailing a distance of 124 NM in adverse weather conditions we were forced to seek refuge on the island of ASTYPALEA after heading at a close hauled into a storm of gusting 55 knots (10B) of wind very close to the island of AMORGOS with most of the sail lead-brail-rings coming off the sail and one of our two quarter rudders broken on its loom. In spite of the storm, the freeboard of the vessel (1.5 metres) was proven to be quite enough to prevent swamping by the stormy seas. Canvas and awnings had to be kept out as we had to have freedom of movement at night time with visibility less than 50 metres. With temperatures close to zero due the wind speed coefficient handling at nighttime the sail and ropes without sailing gloves was an extremely difficult task. After sailing to the lee of Amorgos in to safer waters we were towed in Scala Astypalea where we had to wait for four days before the wind speed decreased to a reasonable level. In Astypalea all the damages were repaired in 24 hrs. The loom was repaired and the new steering oar was reinforced. We departed Astypalea on the 20th. For the third time after sailing 110 NM we were forced by gusting head winds of 40 Knots outside Syros and a broken steering oar to stop at Syros port. At Syros, we had the chance with the assistance of the local shipyard to overhaul KYRENIA 2 with a new fore beam, two totally repaired and reinforced steering oars and other minor repairs and improvements.

From Syros we departed on the 25th of April after waiting for weather conditions to improve for 4 days. After sailing 10 NM we entered an anticyclone with absolute calm. Constraint by time we had to be towed into Zea Marina on the leg from Yaros to Kythnos. We arrived at Zea on the 26th of April 1987 at 02.40 in the morning.

From Limassol Cyprus to Zea Greece, we sailed  a distance of 495 NM (70%) and we were towed for a distance of 212.5 NM (30%). We have sailed 181 hrs and 15 min (84.5%) and we were toed for 33 hrs and 15 min. (15.5%).

We were able to follow the best possible rump line route at apprx. 75% of the trip.  

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  From Cyprus to Rhodes we had mostly light head winds of variable direction with temperatures up to 22 deg.C. and zero octas cloud coverage. Only 100 NM East of Rhodos, we had a sudden change. A low over Egypt, moving slowly East causing Easterly gradient. It became partly cloudy 3 octas, drizzle with wind 100 deg 45-53 Knots (10 Beaufort). The state of sea was very rough and visibility 4NM or less.

From Rhodes to Astypalea conditions were mainly unfavorable with head winds and 8/8 octas cloud coverage, low temperatures and almost continuous raining. Low clouds and fog made the voyage after Kos more difficult and dangerous. Out of Amorgos we entered a violent storm of gusting head winds up to 55 Knots very low visibility rain and high waves. The leg from Astypalea to Syros was carried out in fair weather with sunny and clear skies and light to moderate favorable winds, it was only out of Dylos that we experienced head winds gusting up to 40 Knots. With an anticyclone from Syros to Zea, we had a complete calm with clear skies and comfortable temperatures.

In conclusion we had either very light or very strong winds. We had 2 storms of 10 Beaufort 53 and 55 Knots from 100 deg. and 340 deg respectively and one strong wind of 40 Knots from 230 deg.


  A minimum number of instruments were carried by KYRENIA 2  and the "ELLAS" . On Board the KYRENIA 2 we carried : 1)            One PLASTIMO wind speed indicator, (cup propeller type) horizontal rotation reading in knots. All wind speed readings represented APPARENT OR RELATIVE wind speed (NOT true wind speed). The anemometer was positioned on the furthermost after part of the vessel on top of the stern post away from any unwanted airflow.

  (2)        One electromechanical Log-Speedometer, "STOWE" was carried on board using its readings to record the vessels speed through the water . The impeller was towed from the stern approximately 3 metres from the centerline of the vessel in order to avoid any interference with hull turbulence.

Speed scale was from 0-12 knots. This was also used as a sum log.

  (3)        One SUNTO hand bearing compass was used for azimuth recording : a) the estimated and approximate wind direction. b) the apparent or or relative wind direction, c) the leeway or the angle [š] (heading-actual course) angle of drift.

  (4)        One main fixed plastimo compass for recording the ships heading.

  (5)        An improvised klinometer inside the after-quarter cabin on the bulkhead, made by Stamatis. The scale was 5 degrees increments  on each side and covered angles of heel up to 45 deg. port and starboard.

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THE  KYRENIA 2   TRIPS and  whereabouts

for more details contact the Hellenic Institute for Nautical Tradition at :

The KYRENIA 2  was  transported  on  a  container ship and took part in the OPSAIL 1986  celebrations for the statute of LIBERTY in New York USA. Above the KYRENIA 2 , preparing to open sails on the fourth of July 1986 (Manhatan, New York).(Picture by Yannis Pantzopoullos HIPNT).



During the Asian Pacific exposition KYRENIA 2 joined the "SILK ROAD" project of the Japanese state radio and television NHK. The ship was unloaded in Yokohama with a crew of 3 Kyrenians. Skipper Glafkos Cariolou and her crew members Constantinos Agathangelou (Tatis) and George Paphitis. The HIPNT was represented by naval architect Spyros Karamalis.

The KYRENIA 2 was assembled in rainy weather in SUMITOMO pier and from there she was prepared to enter the port of YOKOHAMA. Thousands  of  Japanese enthusiasts  gathered on the outer pier and waited patiently to see this strange sailing vessel coming under the Yokohama bridge from the depths of ancient history and  the times of the Alexander the Great.

As the wind was favourable the ship sailed beautifully at about 4-5 knots and approached the pier under  the cheering  of an  ocean of people,   under the huge columns of water being sprayed by the welcoming flotilla of tug boats and the deafening noise of over flying television helicopters. The trip in Japan lasted 27 days. KYRENIA 2 successfully sailed in OSAKA, and HAKATA (Fukuoka) and finally she was road-transported to NARA the ancient capital of Japan. His Excellency Emperor Aki Hito visited the ship together with over 3 million Japanese within 30 days!. After the termination of the SILK ROAD PROJECT,  KYRENIA 2 was transported back to Greece in order to catch up with other commitments. However the executive producer of NHK Mr.. Yasugi Hamagami and many other admirers of Hellenic History and Philosophy requested the permission of the HIPNT and the Cyprus Government to construct a replica of the replica,  in order to be permanently exhibited in Japan (Fukuoka). Mr. Hamagami visited Cyprus and secured  the permission of the Cyprus Government to go ahead. In approximately 8 months the Japanese traditional craftsmen constructed an exact full size  replica  of  the KYRENIA 2. Following the request of Glafkos Cariolou, son of the man who discovered the ancient ship of Kyrenia the  new Japanese replica  was named after the beloved  town of Kyrenia KYRENIA 3.   KYRENIA 3 is since early 1990 the permanent Ambassador of Cyprus in Japan and she is  exhibited in Fukuoka with a cargo of 100 Rhodian full size amphorae manufactured in Cyprus by a Kyrenian refugee  pottery artisan .(Moyses) . The ships is exhibited in-doors,  with open sails and surrounded with a lot of information documents about Cyprus and her 10.000 years old culture.

The Government of the Republic of Cyprus  transported the KYRENIA 2 in Hamburg Germany to represent  Cyprus during the Opening Sail  for the 100 years  of  the Hamburg harbour. The vessel was skippered by Glafkos Cariolou and crewed by Kostakis Agathagelou and George Paphitis all of them refugees  and  victims  of the Turkish crime against the people of Cyprus in 1974,  from the town of Kyrenia Cyprus.

The 3 Kyrenians skillfuly sailed the square rigger ancient ship in the river Elbe on a sponsor sail for the handicapped children of  Habourg. All the money collected  was  given  to the Hamburg Red Cross.

During the World Exhibition in Seville Spain the ship was again transported and was completely assembled in the Cyprus pavilion with fully open sails and loaded with ancient treasures from the unique wealth of Cypriot antiquities.

In the year 2001 KYRENIA 2 was in Kalamaria, Greece . Arrangements were made however  between the HIPNT the Municipality of Ayia Napa (East Coast of Cyprus) and the PIERIDES - TORNARITES  FOUNDATION so the ship is to be transported in Cyprus, be preserved and then be permanently installed in the AYIA NAPA MARITIME HISTORY MUSEUM which is at the moment under construction. The entire project is expected to finish in the year 2003 and its going to be unique  for the Eastern Mediterranean Region. (The KYRENIA-2 is now in the "Thalassa" Nautical Museum of Ayia Napa Cyprus where can be visited.-2006).

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